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Shipping Emissions in the Arctic (Black Carbon), SEA-EFFECTS BC

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Project: Shipping Emissions in the Arctic (Black Carbon), SEA-EFFECTS BC


The SEA-EFFECTS BC project aims at more reliable and unequivocal basis of black carbon (BC) emission evaluation to shipping environment, and towards new options for on-line monitoring techniques. Definitions of sampling and sample treatment are essential for reliable measurements in ship environment, particularly when using new fuels and emission control technologies. This approach will also support generation of the reliable ship emission factors. In-depth analysis of other emissions in parallel to BC measurements increase understanding of the results obtained with different techniques, which is a prerequisite for futher development. Business opportunities in the field of emission measurements are evaluated, particularly as concerns sensor and information technology.

Duration of project: 1/2015 - 4/2017

Research partners: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Tampere University of Technology (TUT), University of Turku

Industrial partners: Wärtsilä Finland Oy, HaminaKotka Satama Oy, VG-Shipping Oy, Pegasor Oy, Spectral Engines Oy, Gasmet Technologies Oy, Oiltanking Finland Oy and Kine Robot Solutions Oy

External contributions: AVL List GmbH (Austria), Neste, University of Eastern Finland, Methropolia, Gasera Oy

Financial support: Tekes Arctic Seas programme (40356/14), Trafi (172834/2016) and industrial partners

Contact: Päivi Aakko-Saksa, VTT  




Black carbon emissions from a ship engine in laboratory (SEA-EFFECTS BC WP1), Research Report : VTT-R-02075-17.

Black carbon measurement validation onboard (SEAEFFECTS BC WP2), Research Report: VTT-R-04493-17.

Black carbon measurement in the Arctic – Is there business potential?


Aakko-Saksa et al. Black carbon measurements using different marine fuels. CIMAC Technical Paper Database. CIMAC (2016), Paper no. 068. ,

Aakko-Saksa et al. Considerations in analysing elemental carbon from marine engine exhaust using residual, distillate and biofuels. Journal of Aerosol Science, Volume 126, December 2018, Pages 191-204. 

Amanatidis, et al. (2018) Comparative performance of a thermal denuder and a catalytic stripper in sampling laboratory and marine exhaust aerosols, Aerosol Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1080/02786826.2017.1422236.